Can Muslims copy Christians in using typology to find Muhammad in the Bible?

Both Christians and Muslims have appealed to typology to find (or attempt to find, as a critic might say) their central religious figures, Jesus and Muhammad, in the previous scriptures. What do we mean by this term? As a hermeneutical category, typology establishes a parallel or correspondence between a person, event or institution in the […]

False prophecy in the Qur’an? A cataclysmic judgement that never arrived?

In another article we have looked at perhaps the most popular claimed prophecy in the Qur’an. Less discussed is a potentially false prophecy in the Qur’an. The earlier stage – divine cataclysm In his book (2013 [1990]) God, Muhammad and the unbelievers, David Marshall argues that there is an evolution within the Qur’an in how […]

Did Muhammad predict the success of the Byzantines? (Q 30:2-4)

Muhammad, at least in the Qur’an, does not make many future proclamations. However in Q 30 we read: 2 The Byzantines have been defeated 3 in [their] nearest land. They will reverse their defeat with a victory 4 in a few years’ time: God is in command, first and last. (Abdel Haleem translation is used […]

Is it hypocritical for Christians to point out non-canonical sources in the Qur’an?

In my reading, and as mentioned in a few of my blog posts here on this site (see ‘Apocryphal and non-canonical stories’ here), I have come across a number of occasions where the Qur’an seems to be interacting with non-canonical Jewish and Christian stories. In my blog posts I have explained why I find this […]

Does forgiveness require atonement? (Q 5:95, 5:89)

TLTR Summary: Q 5:95 and Q 5:89 say that sometimes atonement is required for forgiveness. One of the starkest differences between Christian and Muslim theology is on the doctrine of salvation, or ‘soteriology’. I’m not even sure if a Muslim would use this language (please do let me know in the comments Muslim readers); rather […]

‘Produce your proof if you are telling the truth’ (Q 2:111)

Q 2:111 – ‘They [i.e. the People of the Book] also say, ‘No one will enter Paradise unless he is a Jew or a Christian.’ This is their own wishful thinking. [Prophet], say, ‘Produce your evidence, if you are telling the truth.’ (Abdel Haleem) This is a rather curious passage. We are told that the […]